Bp Process Safety Series Pdf
If this occurs, the feed rate to the unit must be reduced until pressures return to normal. This wash rate is quite high and it may be necessary to use the existing process pumps for circulation of water. When all drains and vents have been closed, the unit may be brought to a safe pressure or to the normal fuel-gas pressure, whichever is lower. The packing structure often traps the FeS and enhances the contact between the FeS and the oxygen. Start-up following a turnaround, and, Start-up following a temporary outage.
Our goal is no accidents, no harm to people and no damage to the environment. On the third use, a larger evactor was employed without a suitable vacuum-limiting device. Infrared detectors are now able to detect flammables in inert gases. The immediate cause of the accident was the inadvertent creation of a confined space environment around an open manhole that was being purged with nitrogen.
Whenever practical, emergency equipment should be tested regularly while the unit is in operation. The reader should refer to the operating manual for the correct purge materials for that particular unit. Flanges should be cracked open slowly so that any material incompletely purged from the unit can be handled safely. These procedures must be diligently followed.
All drains and vents on the lines inside the unit and the bypasses on all steam traps should be opened. Here, if a combustible mixture exists, ignition is guaranteed by the continuous flame at the end of the line. However their use has also lead to many fatal accidents through the creation of atmospheres which are deficient in oxygen. Pumps and piping should be inspected during and following these tests.
On start-ups it will be necessary to use checklists in combination with the arrow diagram. When this occurs inside equipment like columns, vessels, and tanks and exchangers containing residual hydrocarbons and air, the results can be devastating. When the replacement of purge material is complete, the drains and vents should be closed and plugged to prevent escape of gas during operation of the unit. This will involve adjusting temperatures, pressures, flow rates and levels, and rerouting gas and liquid streams until the unit reaches normal operating conditions.
This will prevent air from leaking into the unit. Therefore, the operators did not see the need to inject steam to maintain the reactor pressure, when in fact steam was needed to isolate air from fuel gas. Introduction of torch oil and catalyst heating Torch oil is used in the start-up of fluid catalytic cracking units to help heat the catalyst. Because of the absence of any other credible ignition source, the investigation team concluded that the pyrophoric FeS auto-ignited once it became dry enough. It is recommended that the operators record and initial the completion of each step.
An operator then reported that vapours, which looked like steam, were venting from the top of the blowdown drum vent. Note that it may be necessary to check that the foundations can take the additional weight.
Oil flushed into the reflux drums may be pumped out or dropped to the closed drain as desired. Tightness testing with either pressure or vacuum must be continued until all leaks have been stopped. It displaces both gas and liquids, which otherwise might be trapped, and it cools the unit. Equally, if one of several possible interventions had been made the incident would not have happened.
The water must be drained from the low points of these cooler parts of the unit so that it does not get back into the hot equipment or pass on the subsequent processing units and cause trouble there. People, and how they interact with equipment, processes and each other, underpin any safe working environment. Complete draining will prevent water hammer and reduce the hazard of water in the process system during later stages of the start-up. To strengthen our safety performance, we investigate incidents and near misses, take corrective action, apply what we have learned and focus on continually improving how we work. This booklet is intended as a safety supplement to operator training courses, operating manuals, solar greenhouse pdf and operating procedures.
Our safety stories
Normal procedures should be followed for hydrocarbon freeing and steaming of the vessel. All low-point drains on pumps, exchangers, coolers, equipment and piping associated with the vacuum. The procedure will depend on the specific process and the catalyst.
The fuel-gas burner valves should be checked for tightness, and lubricated plug cocks, if any, should be greased during the shutdown. This prevents air from leaking into the fuel gas. Despite persistent attempts to extinguish the fire, the incident progressed to the point where the splitter fell over early the next morning. The site Emergency Response Team was supported by mutual aid and helicopter Life Flight was called in.
Some types of packing metallurgy are very reactive e. Be sure to return this type of tester to its normal testing mode after using it in an inert purge sample so that the dilution mechanism does not interfere with the normal sample. If the first method was used, the water system is ready for the start-up. In some localities, freezing weather must be anticipated.
Home Sustainability Safety. The possibility of water being trapped on trays or in exchangers as a result of plugged weep holes must be recognized.
This is essential for packed beds. The fuel gas is then admitted by gradually opening the valve in the fuel-gas line until it is wide open. As the water level falls to the level of the vents on the respective towers, vessels, etc. Certain lines, vents, drains, etc.
Twenty-six people suffered injuries on-site, none serious. Before the water is introduced, all rundown lines from the unit, the feedline and other lines to the unit should be blinded at the battery limits to prevent water from entering these lines. If a foul atmosphere persists in the vessels, an air or steam siphon or an air blower should be used to provide adequate ventilation.
BP Process Safety Series
Residual water in the unit will also vaporize and pass along with the vaporized oil to cooler parts of the unit. The inert gas should then be replaced by air. Care must be taken when disposing of this water to ensure that the gas is not subsequently released to the atmosphere. The drain at each low point must be opened and left open until all condensate has drained. Operators must be trained to recognize possible difficulties even though the instruments may indicate that all is well.
It may be necessary to use ventilating devices to ensure a noncombustible condition. If these procedures are used, they must be included in the start-up instructions. However, this location had already been used many times for these trailers in the past. All of these things are done to make it safe to work inside furnaces, or on burners or gas lines.
The two serious incidents detailed below vividly illustrate this with both shutdown and start-up cases. Oil should continue to flow from the charge pump through the main components of the unitexchangers, furnace tubes, towers, etc. This was fortunate since this location was not damaged by the explosion. Running a centrifugal pump dry for even a short time may seriously damage it and create a hazardous situation due to packing or. If vacuum equipment has been purged of air and pressure-tightness tested with water, the water must be displaced with an inert gas after which the vacuum test should be made as described above.
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